Global Harmful Algal Blooms

The aim of the symposium was to bring together experts on, and users of, automated in situ imaging systems to present methods, recent results and to share experiences. Another aim was to carry out a comparison of results when analysing plankton communities quantitatively. Young scientists were particularly encouraged to attend the symposium and a special follow-on workshop for young scientists on data processing. 


Symposium: 22-26 August 2022

Agenda and presentations

See below. Many of the presentations made are available to download as pdf's.



Kristineberg Marine Research Station
Kristineberg 566
Fiskebäckskil SE-451 78


On site participants



Symposium agenda
All times are for Swedish summer time (UTC + 2)

Monday 22 August

Arrival and set up of instruments

1200 Lunch in restaurant Mässen for early arrivals

1500 Coffee and tea

1800 Dinner

1930 Ice breaker in restaurant Mässen


Tuesday 23 August

0900-1200 Session 1 in plenum Presentations - focus on HAB observations

0900-0915 Welcome and practical issues (Bengt Karlson and Peter Tiselius) download pdf

0915-0930 Introduction to automated HAB observations (Bengt Karlson) download pdf

0930-0945 Introduction to the Imaging FlowCytobot phytoplankton sensor (Mike Brosnahan) download pdf

0945-1000 Using the Cytosense for HAB observations (Felipe Artigas)

1000-1030 Health break

1030-1045 Using the FlowCam for HAB observations (Ian Salter and Savannah Judge) download pdf

1045-1100 Plankton Classification with CNNs (on-line presentation by Sidney Batchelder, WHOI, USA) download pdf

1100-1200 Speed talks by participants (max 2 minutes, one slide - presentation of persons and scientific interests connected to automated HAB observations)

1140-1200 Discussion

1200-1245 Lunch

1245-1300 In plenum
Introduction to intercomparison (Bengt Karlson)

1300-1500 Quick demonstrations and hands on training (split into smaller groups)

Stop 30 minutes at stations.
IFCB (three instruments)
CytoSense (two instruments)
FlowCam (one FlowCam Macro, a FlowCam 8400 arrived later in the week)

1500-1530 Health break

Session 2 Demonstrations of software etc. in plenum
1530-1600 IFCB (Mike Brosnahan, Vinnie Ferreira and Tom Fougere)

1600-1630 CytoSense (Felipe Artigas, Vikram Rao and Rob Lievaart)

1630-1700 FlowCam 8400 and FlowCam Macro (Terje Berge, Savannah Judge, Nicole Gill and Ian Salter)

1700-1800 Discussions

1800 Dinner

1930-2100 Session 3 Evening session in plenum – presentation by persons not on site

1930-1945 Which, where, and when?: Sharing HAB data products from automated in situ observations of plankton, Stace E. Beaulieu, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA download pdf

1945-2000 Questions and discussion

Wednesday 24 August

Early morning - collection of field samples with ~75 litres of seawater with a phytoplankton community (from the depth of fluorescence maximum = 12 m) (Peter Tiselius and others). In addition zooplankton was collected using 90 µm net (to be discussed with Terje Berge)

Early morning - preparing mix of cultures of phytoplankton for intercomparison (Wenche Eikrem and others)

0900-1000 Intercomparison start - description of experimental design etc.

1000-1030 Health break

1030-1100 Distribution of samples for intercomparison (field sample + mixed cultures)

1100-1200 Analysis of samples for intercomparison and ad hoc hands on training

1200-1300 Lunch

1300-1500 Analysis of samples for intercomparison and ad hoc hands on training

1500-1530 Health break

1530-1700 Analysis of samples for intercomparison and ad hoc hands on training

1800 Dinner

1930-2100 Session 4 Evening session in plenum
Adrian Parker & Pedro A. Martínez, Sixsenso Technologies S.L. “Rapid and on-site phytoplankton assessment in water.” download pdf

Felipe Artigas et al. English Channel and Southern North Sea monitoring

Raphe Kudela et al. IFCB network in the Philippines download pdf

Thursday 25 August

0830-1200 Session 5 Presentations - regional observing systems etc.

0830 An evaluation of the Imaging Flow Cytobot (IFCB) as a tool for monitoring harmful marine micro-algae in an aquaculture region (Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand) (Lincoln A. McKenzie, Raphael Kudela, Ben Knight and Kirsty Smith) download pdf

0845-0900 Using IFCB to monitor filamentous cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea - automated data pipeline and CNN based classification system (Kaisa Kraft) download pdf

0900-0915 Using different FlowCams to observe grazers (Terje Berge) download pdf

0915-0930 HAB observing systems in California using IFCBs (Raphe Kudela and Kasia Kenitz) download pdf

0930-0945 Observations of HABs in the Shetland Islands using the IFCB (Callum Whyte and Keith Davidson) download pdf

0945-1000 Discussion

1000-1030 Health break

1045-1100 The Norwegian coastal observing system in the Skagerrak - on-line presentation (Lars Naustvoll, Mona Ring Kleiven and Hege Skaar) download pdf

1100-1115 HAB hub webserver for data visualization and sharing (Mike Brosnahan, Ethan Andrews, Claire Anacreon, Kali Horn, and Mindy Richlen) download pdf

1115-1130 Automated HAB observations in Sweden (Bengt Karlson) download pdf

1130-1145 Automated HAB observations using the CytoSense in Greece and Croatia (Athanasia Sakavara) download pdf

1145-1200 Automated HAB observations using the CytoSense in Croatia (Ivan Vlašiček) download pdf

1130-1200 Discussion

1200-1300 Lunch

1300-1500 Gather in plenum first. Later - working up data from intercomparison and ad hoc hands on training

1500-1530 Health break

1500 Working up data from intercomparison and ad hoc hands on training

1800 Dinner

1930-2100 Session 6 Invited presentations by persons that are not on site.

1930-1945 Applications of the HABStats Raman Imaging Flow Cytometer, Scott Gallager, USA

1945-2000 Questions and discussion

Discussion about data standard (postponed to another meeting)
Standards and practices for reporting plankton and other particle observations from images Technical Manual

Neeley, A., Beaulieu, S., Proctor, C., Cetinić, I., Futrelle, J., Soto Ramos, I., Sosik, H., Devred, E., Karp-Boss, L., Picheral, M., Poulton, N., Roesler, C., and Shepherd, A.. 2021: Standards and practices for reporting plankton and other particle observations from images. 38pp. DOI: 10.1575/1912/27377.

Best practices and recommendations for plankton imaging data management: Ensuring effective data flow towards European data infrastructures. Version 1.
Martin-Cabrera P. et al. 2022

Common data formats for imaging in flow data products.


Friday 26 August

0830-1000 Session 7 Presentations on, and demonstrations of, AI/machine learning and novel technologies for automated identification of plankton

Hanam Thang (on-line) Detection and monitoring of HABs using remote sensing and machine learning in inland reservoirs: a case study from Tri An reservoir, Vietnam download pdf

Raphe Kudela et al. Development and comparison of IFCB classifiers in coastal California download pdf

Mike Brosnahan et al. PhytoARM: Phytoplankton Observing- Automated Remote Management, a ROS-based sensor integration system and its applications in aquaculture download pdf

Bengt Karlson The European IFCB Network and sharing of annotated images for classifier development using download pdf


1000-1030 Health break

Session 7 continues

Luis Felipe Artigas, Guillaume Wacquet, Alexandre Epinoux, Arnaud Louchart, Florine Verghaeghe, Clémentine Gallot, Zéline Hubert, Pierre-Alexandre Hébert, Emilie Poisson-Caillault, P. Grosjean, Thomas Rutten
Automated classification/recognition of phytoplankton from optical features, pulse shapes and images

Jacqueline Chrabot Planktoscope: In-situ portable digital imaging instrument download pdf


1200-1300 Lunch

Session 8 The instrument manufacturers perspectives
1300-1350 The industry perspective - Mclane Laboratories Inc. (Tom Fougere) download pdf

1315-1330 The industry perspective - CytoSense Bv (Vikram Rao and Rob) download pdf

1330-1345 The industry perspective - Yokogawa Fluid Imaging Technologies (Savannah Judge and Nicole Gill) download pdf

1400-1500 Processing of data from intercomparison, packing of instruments

1500-1530 Health break

1530-1630 Presentation of preliminary results from intercomparison

1630-1730 Wrap up and what is next? Publications? Discussion

Evening: JERICO-S3 discussions

1800-2100 Symposium dinner

2100- ? After dinner discussions


Saturday 27 August

Departure for most of the participants
A few young scientists work with the data from the intercomparison

Sunday 28 August
A few young scientists work with the data from the intercomparison